If someone prays with a turban or something else over the head, what is the ruling on prostrating upon it?
All praises belong to Allah, may the Salah and Salam be upon the one after whom there is no prophet! As for what proceeds:
The scholars are in agreement on the view that putting the forehead directly (on the ground) during the prostration, is more virtuous (Al-Majmoo li Nawawi 3/400)
However due to a necessity or an excuse, if a cloth or turban or something else comes in between (the forefront and the ground), then it is permissible, as there are proofs for such in the Prophetic Sunnah and in the narrations of the companions.
«كُنَّا نُصَلِّي مَعَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَيَضَعُ أَحَدُنَا طَرَفَ الثَّوْبِ مِنْ شِدَّةِ الحَرِّ فِي مَكَانِ السُّجُودِ»
Anas ibn Malik said: “We used to pray with the Prophet (ﷺ) and some of us used to place the ends of their clothes at the place of prostration because of scorching heat” (Sahih Al-Bukhari : 385)
The wording of another narration is:
«فَإِذَا لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ أَحَدُنَا أَنْ يُمَكِّنَ وَجْهَهُ مِنَ الأَرْضِ بَسَطَ ثَوْبَهُ، فَسَجَدَ عَلَيْهِ»
“And if someone of us could not put his face on the earth (because of the heat) then he would spread his clothes and prostrate over them.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1208)
Hasan Al-Basri (may Allah have mercy on him) also reported this from the actions of the noble companions. He said:
كان أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يسجدون وأيديهم في ثيابهم، ويسجد الرجل منهم على عمامته.
“The companions of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) would prostrate with their hands (covered) in their clothes and some of them would prostrate on their turban” (As-Sunnan Al-Kubra lil Baihaqi: 2447)
In these Ahadith and narrations, where we come to know the permissibility of this action, with it, it is also made clear that the noble Prophet (ﷺ) and his noble companions would do such due to cold, heat or an excuse. Thus, we should avoid doing such without any reason or necessity and this is the reason why ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) would dislike this action (Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah: 2757). Ibn Sireen (may Allah have mercy upon him) also declared prostrating over the turban as disliked (Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah: 2763)
His eminence Shaykh Abu Muhammad AbdusSattar Hammad, may Allah preserve him (President of the Lajnah)
His eminence Shaykh Abul Hasan Mubashar Ahmad Rabbani, may Allah preserve him (Vice President)